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**Dynamics II course 2017**Lecture: Monday, 14-16, room S3121

Prof. Dr. Gerrit Lohmann

Tutorial: Monday, 16-17, room S3121

Tutors: Neda Darvishsefat, Christopher Danek, Christian Stepanek

**starting April 10, 2016 with the lecture**

The focus of the course is to identify the underlying dynamics for the atmosphere-ocean system. This is done through theory, numerical models, and statistical data analysis. It has been recognized that the atmospheric and oceanic flow binds together the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere that control the planetary environment. The fundamental concepts of atmosphere-ocean flow, energetics, vorticity, wave motion are described. This includes atmospheric wave motion, extratropical synoptic scale systems, the oceanic wind driven and thermohaline circulation. These phenomena are described using the dynamical equations, observational and proxy data, as well basic physical and mathematical concepts. Exercises complement the lessons.

Specific aspects:

- Dynamical concepts for climate dynamics: Bifurcations, Feedback analysis
- Instabilities in the atmosphere-ocean system and the dynamics of waves
- Statistical approach of fluid dynamics
- Ocean circulation and atmospheric dynamics
- Climate variability patterns
- Reconstruction of climate, instrumental and proxy data
- Fundamental models: Stochastic climate model, Stommel's box model etc.

Literature:

- Holton, J.R., Introduction to Dynamical Meteorology, Academic Press
- Gill, A., Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics, Academic Press
- Dutton, J.A., The Ceaseless Wind, Dover
- Olbers, D.J., Ocean Dynamics, Springer
- Cushman-Roisin, B., ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS
- Cushman-Roisin, B. & Beckers, J.-M., Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Physical and Numerical Aspects
- R. Müller, 2009: Klassische Mechanik -- vom Weitsprung zum Marsflug (de Gruyter)
- J. Marchal, R. A. Plumb, 2008. Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text. Academic Press, 344 pp; videos
- R. H. Stewart, 2008: Introduction To Physical Oceanography, online Version: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/home/course_book.htm
- T. F. Stocker, 2002. Einführung in die Klimamodellierung, Skript Universität Bern
- B. Saltzman, Dynamical Paleoclimatology - A generalized theory of global climate change, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002, 354 pp.
- N. Gershenfeld, The nature of mathematical modeling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003, 344 pp.
- H. Goose, Climate system dynamics and modelling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015, 358 pp.
- The Princeton companion to mathematics / Timothy Gowers, editor ; June Barrow-Green, Imre Leader, associate editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-691-11880-2
- Statistical Analysis of Climate Series Analyzing, Plotting, Modeling, and Predicting with R Pruscha, Helmut 2013, VIII, 176 p. (link)
- Kämpf, J., 2009: Ocean Modelling for Beginners Using Open-Source Software. Springer. (link)

**A script will be provided:**

Gerrit Lohmann: Ocean Fluid Dynamics: Concepts, Scaling and Multiple Equilibria.

132 pp. Lecture Notes 2014

with Examples

exercises on paleo server

studIP

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4 CP, Mandantory course in pep

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__Preliminary time table:__**April 3:**

no lecture

Repeat the material of Dynamics I

Read part of the script Dynamics II

*Chapter 1 of the script*Prepare your own laptop (instal R)

*Chapter 3.2 of the script***April 10:**

14-16: Lecture (Christopher Danek)

Intro into R , instaling on the local computer

16-17 Practice and Tutorial (CD):

Examples (using deSolve in R or direct simulation)

Logistic equation

Lorenz equation

Exercise 1 distributed

**April 17:**

Easter: no lecture

**April 24:**

14-16: Lecture: Overview of Dynamics II

Fluid Dynamics, Non-dimensional parameters, dynamical similarity

Elimination of the pressure term and vorticity

16-17: Tutorial (GL): Exercise 1 collected,

Exercise 2 distributed

**May 1:**

Labour day: no lecture

**May 8:**

14-16: Lecture about programming (Christian Stepanek):

bash, csh, cdo

16-17: Tutorial (CS)

Exercise 1 discussed

Exercise 2 collected

Exercise 3 distributed

**May 15:**

14-16: Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Lorenz system

Bifurcations

16-17: Tutorial (ND)

Exercise 2 discussed, Exercise 3 collected

Exercise 4 distributed

**May 22:**

14-16: Lecture about Ocean Dynamics

Coriolis effect

Scaling of the dynamical equations

Geostrophy

Vorticity

Wind-driven ocean circulation

16-17: Tutorial (GL)

Exercise 4 collected/discussed

Exercise 5 distributed

**May 29:**

14-16: Lecture about Atlantic deep ocean circulation

Vorticity dynamics

Simple model of meridional overturning

Application: Climate-Box-Model

Model scenarios

Projects

16-17: Tutorial (ND)

Exercise 5 collected/discussed

Exercise 6 distributed

**June 6: Pentecost: Holiday in Germany**, no lecture

**June 12:**

14-16: Lecture about Shallow water equations and waves

Rossby, Gravity, Kelvin waves

Equatorial waves: Theory of Matsuno

Plain waves

Scaling

16-17: Tutorial (ND)

Exercise 6 collected/discussed

Exercise 7 distributed

**June 19: Lecture at AWI**

14-16: Lecture about Stochastic climate model

Scaling: Brownian motion and stochastic climate model

The Boltzmann Equation and Navier Stokes Equation

Simulation set-up of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection

Application: Lattice Boltzmann Dynamics

16-17: Tutorial (CS)

Exercise 3 discussed

Exercise 8 distributed

**June 26:**

14-15: Lecture Climate variability and dynamics

Climate dynamics and circulation (Arctic Oscillation, ENSO, blocking )

15-16: Practice (GL): PaLib, correlation and composite maps, significance

Outlook: Holocene dynamics (Template model), Dynamics of ice ages, Orbital parameters, Tides

15-17 Tutorial (ND):

Exercise 7 and 8 collected/discussed

Re-Questions to all exercises

**July 3:**

14-16: Preparation for the exam

Test exam

15-17 Tutorial (ND): Re-Questions to exercises and test exam

**August 2:**Exam (written, 10-12), room S1360

The exam is based on the exercises and the general content of the lecture.

Following the rules of pep.

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